Gastroenterology. 2016 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Efficient early drug development for ulcerative colitis.
Khanna R, Jairath V, Vande Casteele N, et al.
No abstract available.

Gastroenterology. 2016 Mar 24.
How failure can fuel improvements in early drug development for inflammatory bowel diseases.
Schreiber S, Vermeire S.
No abstract available.

Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Mar 22. [Epub ahead of print]
The risk of relapse after anti-TNF discontinuation in inflammatory bowel disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gisbert JP, Marín AC, Chaparro M.

Dig Liver Dis. 2016 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Treatment satisfaction, preferences and perception gaps between patients and physicians in the ulcerative colitis CARES study: A real world-based study.
Peyrin-Biroulet L, Van Assche G, Sturm A, et al.

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a life time disease and issues with therapy may impact on patient satisfaction and treatment preferences. AIMS: To assess disease and treatment perception gaps from patients' and physicians' perspectives in UC patients.
METHODS: Adult patients with moderate-to-severe UC (Mayo score ≥6) naïve to biologic therapy were enrolled in a European, observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the TSQM questionnaire and treatment preferences and patient's knowledge with pre-defined questions. Physicians' and patients' perceptions were compared through the level of agreement.
RESULTS: 256 patients from 11 European countries were included. 48.0% of patients were dissatisfied with their current treatment. Effectiveness, long lasting action, rapid start of action, and fewer side effects were the attributes more frequently considered important or very important by patients (96.9%, 89.1%, 83.8%, and 81.8%, respectively). 26.2% patients rated their overall disease knowledge as very knowledgeable. The agreement between patients' and physicians on disease severity was good (kappa=0.62).
CONCLUSION: Half patients with moderate-to-severe UC managed with conventional therapy, are dissatisfied with their treatments. Effectiveness, long lasting action and rapidity of action were the most frequently rated items in treatment preferences. There are major gaps between physicians and patients when evaluating disease burden.

J Crohns Colitis. 2016 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-term outcome of patients with ulcerative colitis and primary non-response to infliximab.
Papamichael K, Rivals-Lerebours O, Billiet T, et al.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We studied the long-term outcome of patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] and primary non response [PNR] to infliximab and searched for predictors of colectomy in these patients.
METHODS: This retrospective, multi-centre study included UC patients from three European referral centres, with PNR to infliximab defined as a lack of clinical improvement after the induction therapy, leading to drug discontinuation. Relapse, for patients who continued on biologicals after PNR to infliximab, was defined as drug discontinuation for PNR, loss of response, or serious adverse event. Serum infliximab concentrations at Weeks 2 and 6 were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] developed in house.
RESULTS: The study population consisted of 99 anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-naïve patients with UC and PNR to infliximab. At the end of follow-up (median: 3.2 [interquartile range 1-6.3] years), 55 [55.6%] of these patients underwent colectomy. Multiple Cox regression analysis identified acute severe UC (hazard ratio [HR]: 24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-231; p = 0.006], baseline C-reactive protein [CRP] > 5mg/l [HR: 11; 95% CI: 2.1-58.8; p = 0.005], baseline albumin < 40g/l [HR: 9.5; 95% CI: 1.3-71.4; p = 0.026], and infliximab concentration at Week 2 < 16.5 μg/ml [HR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.1-27.8; p = 0.034] as independent predictors of colectomy. Regarding patients who continued on biologicals after PNR to infliximab, there was a marginally higher cumulative probability for relapse in patients switching to another anti-TNF agent compared with those swapping to vedolizumab [p logrank = 0.08].
CONCLUSIONS: About half of UC patients with PNR to infliximab will undergo colectomy. Patients with severe inflammation and low serum infliximab concentrations during the induction phase are at greatest risk.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Induction infliximab levels among patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis compared with patients with moderately severe ulcerative colitis.
Ungar B, Mazor Y, Weisshof R, et al.

BACKGROUND: Infliximab is effective as salvage therapy for patients with steroid refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC). Although current data suggest that the pharmacokinetics of infliximab are influenced by inflammatory burden in patients with acute severe UC, data comparing infliximab trough levels in patients with acute severe UC vs. moderately severe UC are scarce. AIM: To compare infliximab trough and anti-infliximab antibody levels at a standard fixed time-point during induction between patients with acute severe and moderately severe UC.
METHODS: A multi-centre retrospective study comparing infliximab drug and antibody levels 14 days after the first infusion in hospitalised acute severe UC versus out-patients with moderately severe UC was performed.
RESULTS: Sixteen acute severe UC patients, hospitalised between 2010-2015 and refractory to intravenous corticosteroids, were treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg salvage therapy. They were compared to 16 moderately severe UC out-patient controls. Mean infliximab trough levels at day 14 were significantly lower in patients with acute severe UC compared to moderately severe UC (7.15 ± 5.3 vs. 14.4 ± 11.2 μg/mL, P = 0.007). Seven patients (three acute severe and four moderate severe UC) were primary nonresponders to infliximab induction therapy. Infliximab level at day 14 did not differ between responders and nonresponders (9.8 ± 9 vs. 12.1 ± 10.6 μg/mL, respectively, P = N.S.). However, week 2 median antibody-to-infliximab levels were numerically higher among primary nonresponders (3.4 ± 5.7 vs. 1.2 ± 4 μg/mL-eq, respectively, P = 0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab trough levels at day 14 were lower in patients with acute severe UC compared to moderately severe UC, possibly due to a higher inflammatory burden and/or increased drug clearance. However, drug levels at day 14 were not lower among nonresponders compared with responders. Controlled trials are warranted to examine whether an a-priori-intensified infliximab induction protocol will lead to an improved outcome in acute severe UC.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Serum infliximab, antidrug antibodies, and tumor necrosis factor predict sustained response in pediatric Crohn's disease.
Stein R, Lee D, Leonard MB, et al.

BACKGROUND: Serum infliximab (s-IFX) levels, antibodies to IFX (ATI), and inflammatory markers are important in predicting clinical outcomes in adults, but their roles in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) require further study. The primary aim of this study was to determine the association between serologic parameters during induction and ongoing IFX therapy at 12 months in pediatric CD.
METHODS: S-IFX, ATI, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (s-TNF-α), and C-reactive protein were measured at IFX initiation, 10 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months in a prospective cohort study of children with CD at a single tertiary care center.
RESULTS: At 12 months, 60 of 77 participants (78%) remained on IFX. Participants who completed 12 months of IFX had higher 10-week median s-IFX levels (20.40 μg/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 11.20-35.00] versus 8.70 μg/mL; IQR 0.90-16.90; P = 0.01), a greater proportion with undetectable 10-week ATI (P = 0.008), and a greater median change in s-TNF-α between baseline and week 10 (-5.96 pg/mL; IQR, -8.73 to -4.17 versus -1.76 pg/mL; IQR, -5.60 to 0.30; P = 0.006). Receiver operating characteristic analysis to predict ongoing IFX at 12 months showed area under the curve (95% confidence interval) for 10-week s-IFX and change in s-TNF-α from baseline to 10 weeks to be 0.71 (0.54-0.88) and 0.74 (0.58-0.91), respectively. C-reactive protein was not associated with ongoing therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: ATI, s-IFX, and s-TNF-α during IFX induction are associated with 12-month clinical outcomes in pediatric CD. Future studies are needed to further define the clinical role of s-TNF-α measurement and to compare the clinical utility of 10 and 14-week ATI and s-IFX levels.

Ther Drug Monit. 2016 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]
A comparison of three assays to quantify infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept serum concentrations.
van Bezooijen JS, Koch BC, Doorn MV, et al.

BACKGROUND: To optimize treatment of inflammatory diseases, interest in the measurement of anti- tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) serum drug concentrations is increasing. Preferably, assays for the detection of these drugs should be compared using the same reference material. In the current study two commercially available ELISAs and a commercially available bioassay for the determination of anti-TNFα drugs are compared.
METHOD: Serum samples from infliximab-, adalimumab- and etanercept-treated patients, control samples from ustekinumab-treated patients and healthy donors were obtained. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs) manufactured by Sanquin and Theradiag, and the iLite reporter gene-based bioassay from Biomonitor were compared.
RESULTS: Sanquin, Theradiag and iLite assays concordantly (100%) detected infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept in the relevant patient groups. The Sanquin ELISAs specifically detected the anti-TNFα drug they were designed for, whereas the Theradiag and iLite showed cross-reactivity with other anti-TNFα drugs. Ustekinumab was not detected in any of the assays. Sanquin, Theradiag and iLite exhibited linear quantitative correlation for all drug concentration assays. However, there were statistically significant quantitative differences in measured concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS: All three commercially available assays appear suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-TNFα drugs, allowing sensitive and comparable detection of infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept concentrations, however with differences in specificity and recovery.


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